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A broader definition that encompasses different eras of jazz has been proposed by Travis Jackson: "it is music that includes qualities such as swing, improvising, group interaction, developing an 'individual voice', and being open to different musical possibilities".
In contrast to commentators who have argued for excluding types of jazz, musicians are sometimes reluctant to define the music they play.
For others, jazz is a reminder of "an oppressive and racist society and restrictions on their artistic visions".
In contrast, jazz is often characterized by the product of interaction and collaboration, placing less value on the contribution of the composer, if there is one, and performer.
The jazz performer interprets a tune in individual ways, never playing the same composition twice.
Cool jazz developed near the end of the 1940s, introducing calmer, smoother sounds and long, linear melodic lines.
The 1950s saw the emergence of free jazz, which explored playing without regular meter, beat and formal structures, and in the mid-1950s, hard bop emerged, which introduced influences from rhythm and blues, gospel, and blues, especially in the saxophone and piano playing.